Tutorial in Visual and Aural History
This theoretical and methodological tutorial explores the incorporation of the visual and the aural into historical research. Particular areas of emphasis include changing historical understandings of the senses; the advancement and critique of the concept of the “period eye/ear;” the analysis of images as historical sources; and the reconstruction of soundscapes and other aural phenomena. Additional topics and readings will be designed according to students’ particular chronological, geographical, and methodological specializations.
Core Reading List:
- Michael Baxandall, Words for Pictures: Seven Papers on Renaissance Art and Criticism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003).
- Teresa Brennan and Martin Jay, eds., Vision in Context: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Sight, (New York: Routledge, 1996).
- Peter Burke, Eyewitnessing: The Uses of Images as Historical Evidence (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001).
- Veit Erlmann, ed., Hearing Cultures: Essays on Sound, Listening and Modernity (Oxford: Berg Publishers, 2004).
- Jessica Evans and Stuart Hall, eds., Visual Culture: The Reader (London: Sage Publications, 1999; reprint, 2004).
- David Freedberg, The Power of Images: Studies in the History and Theory of Response (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).
- Robert Jütte, A History of the Senses: From Antiquity to the Present Day (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2005).
- Serge Gruzinski, Images at War: Mexico from Columbus to Blade Runner (1492-2019), trans. Heather MacLean (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001).
- Mark M. Smith, ed., Hearing History: A Reader (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2004).
Tutorial in the History of Reformation Europe
This tutorial explores the history and historiography of Christianity in Europe c. 1450-1650. At the beginning of this period, the overwhelming majority of Europeans were bound together by a commonly-held Christian culture. In the sixteenth century, these bonds were shattered as Europeans debated what “Christianity” meant. By the seventeenth century, Europeans lived in a world divided by religion, and Christianity played a central role in Europeans’ interactions with others around the globe. This tutorial surveys these transformations, incorporating recent work on subjects such as persecution and toleration, popular culture, and global missions. It also provides an introduction to trends in the historiography of the Reformation, including the confessionalization thesis and recent calls for a post-confessional history.
Core Reading List:
- Philip Benedict, Christ’s Churches Purely Reformed: A Social History of Calvinism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002).
- Robert Bireley, The Refashioning of Catholicism, 1450-1700 (Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1999).
- Peter Blickle, Communal Reformation: The Quest for Salvation in Sixteenth-Century Germany, translated by Thomas Dunlap (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1992).
- William J. Bouwsma, John Calvin: A Sixteenth-Century Portrait (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988).
- Caroline Walker Bynum, Wonderful Blood: Theology and Practice in Late Medieval Northern Germany and Beyond (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007).
- Barbara B. Diefendorf, Beneath the Cross: Catholics and Huguenots in Sixteenth-Century Paris (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).
- C. Scott Dixon, ed., The German Reformation: The Essential Readings (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999).
- Alastair Duke, Reformation and Revolt in the Low Countries (London: Hambledon and London, 2003).
- Brad S. Gregory, Salvation at Stake: Christian Martyrdom in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999).
- Benjamin J. Kaplan, Divided by Faith: Religious Conflict and the Practice of Toleration in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2007).
- David M. Luebke, ed., The Counter-Reformation: The Essential Readings (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999).
- Diarmaid MacCulloch, The Reformation (New York: Penguin, 2005).
- Heiko A. Oberman, Luther: Man between God and the Devil. Trans. Eileen Alliser-Schwarzbart (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989).
- John W. O’Malley, Trent and All That: Renaming Catholicism in the Early Modern Era (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005).
- R.W. Scribner, For the Sake of Simple Folk: Popular Propaganda for the German Reformation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).
- Ethan H. Shagan, “Can Historians End the Reformation?” Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 97 (2006): 298-306.
- Lee Palmer Wandel, The Eucharist in the Reformation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
- George Huston Williams, The Radical Reformation (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1962).
Interview of Ohanian, UVA alumn and co-founder of Reddit
Tutorial in the History of the Human Sciences
Course Description: This graduate-level tutorial introduces the major problems, debates, and methods of historical writing on the human sciences in Western Europe and the United States since around 1800. It is intended particularly, though not exclusively, as field preparation for the general examination. Emphasizing anthropology, sociology, and the mind sciences (psychology, psychoanalysis, and psychiatry), we consider the intellectual as well as the institutional dimensions of how disciplines emerged; how they created new forms of power; how they affected old forms of power; and how they changed everyday life. We also consider concepts and techniques which cross disciplinary boundaries, including evolutionary theory, probability theory, and “behavioral science.” Readings include a selection of primary and theoretical texts as well as a broad survey of the secondary literature.
Sample Reading List:
John Carson, The Measure of Merit: Talents, Intelligence and Inequality in the French and American Republics
Jamie Cohen-Cole, The Open Mind: Cold War Politics and the Sciences of Human Nature
Kurt Danziger, Constructing the Subject: Historical Origins of Psychological Research
Emile Durkheim, Suicide
Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, vol. 1
Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams
Peter Ghosh, Max Weber and The Protestant Ethic: Twin Histories
Nils Gilman, Mandarins of the Future: Modernization Theory in Cold War America
Jan Goldstein, Console and Classify: The French Psychiatric Profession in the Nineteenth Century
Ian Hacking, The Taming of Chance
Henrika Kuklick, The Savage Within: The Social History of British Anthropology
Daniel Immerwahr, Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development
Joel Isaac, Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences from Parsons to Kuhn
Kathleen Jones, Taming the Troublesome Child: American Families, Child Guidance, and the Limits of Psychiatric Authority
George Makari, Revolution in Mind: The Creation of Psychoanalysis
Peter Mandler, Return from the Natives: How Margaret Mead Won the Second World War and Lost the Cold War
Theodore Porter, The Rise of Statistical Thinking, 1820-1900
Ron Robin, The Making of the Cold War Enemy: Culture and Politics in the Military Intellectual-Complex
Ben Shephard, A War of Nerves: Soldiers and Psychiatrists in the Twentieth Century
George Stocking, Victorian Anthropology
Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
Alison Winter, Mesmerized: Powers of Mind in Victorian Britain
Eli Zaretsky, Secrets of the Soul: A Social and Cultural History of Psychoanalysis
Tutorial in Global Legal History
Considers key ideas and practices in global legal history, ca. 1500-1900. Explores the interaction of European law with non-European cultures as empires expanded; the development of the law of the sea; and early ideas and pratices in the law of nations.
Tutorial in British Legal and Political Thought
Considers major texts in legal and political thought of the 17th and 18th centuries. Focuses on canonical works by thinkers such as Hobbes, Harrington, Sidney, Locke, Smith, and Blackstone. Texts will be appoached from within their historical contexts.
Tutorial in English Legal History
Considers key ideas and practices in English law from the late medieval period. Attention given to institutions, their development, and their interaction. Legal change will be studied in its social, political, and economic contexts. Also explores transformations in English law as it moved across a burgeoning empire.
Tutorial in Early Modern British History
Considers developments in the British Isles and its nascent empire in the 16th and 17th centuries. Focuses on historiography of the Reformation and persistent religious conflicts, the causes and nature of the Civil Wars, and the origins of empire.
Tutorial in Late Roman Republican History
Tutorial in Late Roman Republican History
Students are expected to attend the lectures for HIEU 3041 (“Fall of the Roman Republic”) and to take the exams for that course. They are also expected to write two papers (one five-to-seven pages, one fifteen-to-twenty), the first on a specific Roman (short) text, the second on a more wide-ranging subject to be determined between instructor and student.
We will meet every other week for two hours.
Readings will include a comparison of two different surveys of the period,
- H. H. Scullard, From the Gracchi to Nero (fifth edition, 1982, but with new foreword by D. Rathbone, 2011: you must use the 2011 version of this edition because, irritatingly enough, the page numbers differ from the 1982 printing).
- C. Mackay, The Breakdown of the Roman Republic: from Oligarchy to Empire (2009)
Further readings will be drawn from:
- M. Beard and M. Crawford, Rome in the Late Republic (1985) 25-39, 40-71
- K.-J. Hölkeskamp, "History and Collective Memory in the Middle Republic," in N. Rosenstein and R. Morstein Marx, eds., A Companion to the Roman Republic (2006) 478-495
- K. Hopkins, Conquerors and Slaves (1978) 1-74
- N. Rosenstein, Rome at War (2004) 141-169 (and notes, 270-280)
- S. Roselaar, Public Land in the Roman Republic (2010) 148, 180-220
- Plutarch, Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus (=Makers 153-193)
- Appian, Civil Wars 1.1-121 (pp. 1–68)
- testimonia about Gaius Gracchus, fragments of his speeches; his judicial law
- Plutarch, Marius (=Fall 4-55) and Sulla (=Fall 56-104)
- Sallust, The Jugurthine War (pp. 51-138); note chronology in packet
- L. Keppie, The Making of the Roman Army (1984) 33-68
- A. Riggsby, Roman Law and the Legal World of the Romans (2010) 111-117, 195-202;
- Plutarch, Cicero 1-27 (=Fall 322-351)
- Cicero, Brutus 1-227, 304-319 (=On Government 221-293, 322-328)
- fragments of Cato the Elder
- Cicero, Verrines 2.5 (=On Government 16-105)
- Appian, Mithridatic Wars 64-113
- Plutarch, Lucullus (in packet), Pompey 1-42 (=Fall pp. 160-207), and Crassus (=Fall 110-154)
- Sallust, Histories 2.98 (Letter of Pompey) and 4.69 (Letter of Mithridates), both in Woodman (pp. 156-157 and 161-164)
- Cicero, Pro Murena (=On Government 106-159)
- Polybius, Hist. 6.11-18;
- Cicero Republic 1.33-71 (pp. 17-33)
- Cicero Laws book 3 (=On Government 192-220)
- [Quintus Cicero], Handbook on Electioneering
- F. Millar, "Popular Politics at Rome in the Late Republic," in I. Malkin and Z. Rubinsohn, eds., Leaders and Masses in the Roman World (1995) 91-113
- H. Mouritsen, Plebs and Politics in the Late Roman Republic (2001) 1-17
- many letters of Cicero, in his Selected Letters, Letters to Friends, and Letters to Atticus
- Sallust, Catiline's War (pp. 3-47)
- Cicero, Against Catiline 1-4 (=Selected Political Speeches 71-145)
- Cicero, Pro Milone (=Selected Political Speeches 215-278)
- Cicero, Pro Caelio (=Selected Political Speeches 165-214)
- Catullus, Poems 2-3, 5, 7-8, 11, 37, 51, 58, 70, 72, 75, 77, 78B, 79, 83, 85-87, 92, 100, 107 (n.b. Lesbia=Clodia); 29, 52, 54, 57, 97-98, 108, 113
- Plutarch, Cato [xerox], Caesar (=Fall 254-322), Brutus (=Makers 223-270)
- Caesar, Gallic Wars books I-II, VII (=3-53, 142-194)
- Caesar, Civil War 1.1-1.33 (=pp. 3-22; pp. 270-279 are the notes)
- R. E. Smith, The Failure of the Roman Republic (1955) 163-166
- E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (1974) 498-507
- Nicolaus of Damascus, Life of Augustus 1-31 (pp. 3-75, followed by notes)
- Plutarch, Antony (=Makers 271-349)
- Cicero, Philippics 1 (=Selected Speeches 295-318) and Philippics 2 (pp. 101-153)
- "Praise of Turia" (inscription [ILS 8393], pp. 208-211)
- Suetonius, Augustus 1-17, 26-27, 68-70 (pp. 54-63, 67-69, 92-94)
- Velleius Paterculus, Compendium 88-95
- Augustus, *Res Gestae Divi Augusti